The Gamble: General David Petraeus and the American Military Adventure in Iraq. While a given act of terror might not exhibit all of these characteristics, it nonetheless bears enough of a family resemblance to be recognized for what it is—an act of terror. How Do Just War Principles Apply to Terrorism & Asymmetrical Warfare? The World has continued to battle with various forms of vulnerabilities issues, with several stakeholders coming up with solutions to the crisis. As a result they have drawn the most ire and ongoing reactive violence from exogenous groups; and this shows no sign of decreasing. Although the word is used regularly, and although we know an act of terror when we see it, it is best to define the concept. Daesh are merely one of many armed groups in the world. Download for offline reading, highlight, bookmark or take notes while you read Terrorism, Asymmetric Warfare, â¦ Oxon: Routledge, 2013, 15. There are no comments yet, but you can be first to comment this article. Although the word is used regularly, and although we know an act of terror when we see it, it is best to define the concept. At the level of public policy, one of the most significant debates is whether to classify counterterrorism as warfare or police action.  Countries with deep-seated and ongoing domestic governance issues and internal frictions are many and the West, through the auspices of the United Nations, has done little in applying comprehensive pressure to bring about change—the Philippines, Israel, Nigeria, Mali and Saudi Arabia is to name only some that have within their societies long-term highly-fractious issues. In regard to ends, acts of terror are usually waged on behalf of a religion or ideology. Arizona State University. 12.  Joseph Collins. As all warfare throughout history has been asymmetric to a greater or lesser extent, this ânewâ âAsymmetric Warfareâ (note the capitals to enforce the semantics) has come to be defined as otherwise militarily inferior forces seeking to strike at more powerful adversaries by targeting and exploiting weaknesses of the â¦ Neil Lennon outlines Celtic psychological warfare plan as Hoops boss refuses to give up 10 In A Row dream.  Emma Luxton. 7 Moral Criteria to Guide Commanders during Battle. In more contemporary times the political rhetoric, largely by Western politiciansâ have morphed terrorism into a more lethal dyad: the combination of being an asymmetrical- and an existential- threat. ; France had been stating for months in 2012, that a West African military force should bring control to Mali. The type of conflict varies widely; historical examples include: Secession of a territory to form a new â¦ The 9/11 attacks are a quintessential example of terrorism. February 14, 2001 Describes the threat and effect of asymmetric and terrorist attacks using chemical weapons. The ongoing and consistent animosity toward the West by exogenous and non-state actors in the aforementioned clearly offers examples of the West being deemed an existential threat to their societies. The type of attack is a reflection of and a response to, what the actor perceives as being an overwhelming problem, and one that he (in these cases the perpetrators were male) must respond to; be part of the cause; and play an active role in opposing the enemy—in these cases the West. The West is so spellbound with âThe War on Terrorâ that people see terrorists in every airport, every café and in every mosque. An example of this can be traced to the Gulf War (1990- 1991), in which Osama bin Laden, (and his Al-Qaeda followers) did not approve of Saddam’s military forces invading Kuwait, however, Bin Laden’s greatest objections were the US’ maintenance of the Saudi Arabian monarchy; the monarchy’s continuing subjugation of Islam’s holiest land; and the deployment of US troops on Islam’s holy Saudi Arabian soil to fight a fellow Arab state. Terrorism is a form of asymmetric warfare, and is more common when direct conventional warfare will not be effective because forces vary greatly in power. An action that the West nevertheless, persists in following. London: Penguin Books, 1973, 14 -17. An introduction, guide and assessment, 16. Acknowledging that there are slight variations to the thematic definitions of what it is to be an ‘existentialist’ and to involve oneself in ‘existentialism,’ is dependent upon which scholarly practice and interpretation is applied. In the former, under attack or occupation from a superior power, it may be possible to use unconventional tactics such as hit-and-run and selective battles as an effective means of harassment without violatinâ¦ The Ethics of Special Operations Warfighting. Existentialism. ‘Red Army Faction.’ The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica. Yet, the challenge to build a consistently effective and ethical counterterrorism is one that we must meet, and continue to meet, as new and extreme iterations of terrorism emerge. All are intended by a terrorist group, when a government is exhausted from the battles, to sue for peace on favourable terms. E-IR is an independent non-profit publisher run by an all volunteer team. Fourth, object-focused definitions focus on the target of terrorism, the deliberate or reckless use of force against noncombatants.  Existentialism. Report Documentation Page Form Approved OMB No. The hostility is generalized and indiscriminate. The attacks on what has become colloquially known as ‘soft targets’—the attack on the World Trade Center being the most significant in recent times–has permitted terrorism and therefore terrorists, to attain a newfound prominence. It explores the concept of insurgency as well the objectives it is focused on, interrogating the traditional and modern terrorist insurgencies and drawing a distinction between counter-insurgency and counter-terrorism. What Kind of Peace Should America Seek in our War-Torn Era? He is also the author of Every Square Inch: An Introduction to Cultural Engagement for Christians and One Nation Under God: A Christian Hope for American Politics. The followers it is safe to argue, embrace relevant political and cultural ideologies of the group, which in ideologies in turn ‘drive the actions’ and this relates to lone-wolf as well as group actors. UCLANews. Washington was furious and immediately turned on the Taliban and branded it an ‘outlaw regime.’ Terrorism as an act for Al-Qaeda and the Taliban is seen of as a reaction to what is often referred to as ‘Westoxification’ has hinged on many issues although it comes under the macrocosm of the selective inclusion of politico-, military- and economic-principles of the West; and the (selective) application of these to Middle East, Southeast and Central Asian Muslim societies. All Rights Reserved | Site by Rootsy. Terrorism, Asymmetric Warfare, and Weapons of Mass Destruction: Defending the U.S. But American forces were in Saudi Arabia a year after the Gulf War ended, and bin Laden felt betrayed. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1999, 15.  James Lutz and Brenda Lutz. http://www.ussartf.org/world_trade_center_disaster.htm. ‘Mali – The French Way of War.’ The European Institute. Groups and individuals that present and are subsequently involved in fighting Western forces in non-Western environments essentially, ‘seek to liberate themselves and their co-nationals from what they perceive to be a colonial situation or a repressive government.’ The existential-connectivity of a group is no doubt enhanced through their successes (and losses), and this it can be argued also informs and compels an ongoing belligerence toward their enemy. This is writ large in the following observation, The American tradition [of fighting wars and of intervention] also tends to neglect the lesson, learned repeatedly in dozens of twentieth-century wars, that the only way to defeat an insurgency campaign is not to attack the enemy but instead to protect and win over the people.. Adding the new terminology ascribes and signals, a fundamentally different view of terrorism and extends it beyond simply being non-state actors taking up arms against the State to that of an actor or actors, using violence as a means of personal expression. There is a wide spectrum of potential threats to the U.S. homeland that do not involve overt attacks by states using long-range missiles or conventional military forces. Existentialism is a Humanism.1945. To craft an ethical but ineffective counterterrorism is an injustice to the noncombatants in our societies who do not deserve being blown to pieces while working at the desk in their Manhattan office or flying with their family on a commercial airliner. Existentialism was a reaction to rationalism and empiricism which has at its core the Enlightenment (1685 – 1815), which is ‘positivistic’ and holds the conviction ‘that the true repositories of knowledge are the sciences.’ Empiricism retains the predisposition and doctrinal components of ‘all knowledge comes from the sense experiences’ and that ‘the mind is not furnished with a set of concepts in advance of experience.’. The rethink has been brought about by the pursuit of civilian (undefended) locales and the successes individuals and terrorist groups have achieved in targeting them. 2. Title: Terrorism in Asymmetrical Conflict: Ideological and Structural Aspects, SIPRI Research Report no. See: https://www.hrw.org/tag/philippines-war-drugs.  ee:’Nigeria Chibok abductions: What we know.’ BBCNews. Whilst both operations were aimed at regime change it can also be argued that they represent a strategic-foothold for the West in the Middle East which reflects its colonizing history and its inabilities to exercise comprehensive change beyond strategic necessity. On the other hand, some commentators classify counterterrorism as a type of police action with the terrorist classed as an armed and dangerous criminal who nonetheless is subject to due legal process. Praise be to Allah…. This factor brings existentialism to the fore as the decision to die for a cause (theoretically) presents a willingness to make the ultimate and most intimate of personal decision-making, one which is free of logic and reasoning. 8 Criteria for Deciding When It’s Right to Go to War, 10. As the threat and actions of terrorists have become more focused, their outcomes have a greater impact on populaces of nation-states. Guerrilla warfare, occurring between lightly armed partisans and a conventional army, is an example of asymmetrical warfare. In regard to means, acts of terror involve the deliberate killing of noncombatants or harming of property to create a spirit of fear in order to gain leverage for attaining various goals. Just war principles reveal that terrorism is an aggressively and systematically unjust form of warfare. the historical context of manifestation and the development of asymmetrical forms of security threats and the asymmetric war as a specific phenomenon. Terrorism: the new global threat. The existential nature of a terrorist attack is equally able to be applied to a small group or an ‘army’ such as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria as the decision-making and homogenization components are similar. Civil and guerrilla â¦ Cambridge: Polity Press, 2005, 7. However, Grandmaster Shifuji Shaurya Bhardwaj made history by becoming the Worldâs youngest inventor of the Deadliest customised counter-terrorism, customised counter insurgency system and customised Urban Warfareâ¦ Whilst this may broaden the facets of existentialism to a politico-bloc the West is nonetheless, making decisions and enacting choices. Orientalism. 0704-0188 Public reporting â¦ The second type is the religious lone-wolf, who perpetrates terrorism in the name of Islam, Judaism or some other belief system.’ See: Jeffrey Simon. The values, whether they be freedom, religion, manumission or a multitude of other precedents is not what is of interest here, as it is the act of violence and its motivations through the prism of existentialism that informs this essay. Terrorism isn't Asymmetric warfare. The different types of asymmetric warfare are robustly associated. That is the Question.  Existentialism begins with ‘man as existent rather than man as a thinking subject.’ Sartre’s theorizing and philosophising considers man to be the subject, what happens to him is what makes him, it is the philosophy of the subject rather than the object. Narco-terrorism is here understood as an integral component of Pakistanâs state-sponsorship of cross-border terrorism used so as to fund and conduct asymmetric warfare against its neighbours -foremost India- and achieve certain foreign policy goals,â points out Wolf. Understanding Existentialism. 1. Pakistan and Terrorism: China-Pakistan Economic Corridor as Critical Juncture? See: The National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism. Regardless of the way in which the West has approached interventionism and the terrorist threat inspired because of it, the fundamental strategy of interventionism remains ensconced in a flawed US model of action. https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/Eurocentric,  For a comprehensive understanding of terrorism being a threat to the balance-of-power in Western and non-Western countries see: Peter Jennings. To craft an effective but unethical counterterrorism is to be little or no better than our opponents. What Kind of Peace Should America Seek in our War-Torn Era? http://newsroom.ucla.edu/stories/what-makes-lone-wolfe-terrorists-245316,  The Baader-Meinhof Group was formed in 1968 and had its origins in the German protest university movement of the 1970s. VS Â There is more to it than a strategic terrorist act. Within the realm of existentialism and as this article has borne out, no power has a dominance over what an existential threat comprises and moreover, there is some disagreement regarding whether terrorism is an existential threat to developed Western countries.  Harvey Kushner. Attacks on soft-targets do have an existential basis, as an attack requires a high-degree of decision-making by the individual in the process of acquiring the necessary assets, and of following through with the attack. Your donations allow us to invest in new open access titles and pay our The West’s intervention in Afghanistan by the United States of America (US) and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization’s, International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in 2001—Operation Enduring Freedom—in order to expel the Taliban is a prime example of an involvement that was and remains, ill-conceived, badly-executed and ineffectual as the Taliban continues to be a robust force. Australian Strategic Policy Institute. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-32299943,  ‘Charlie Hedbo attack: Track how events unfolded.’ ABCNews. Sartre, however describes these actions reflecting ‘a deep responsibility for all humanity.’ See: http://www.public.asu.edu/~jmlynch/273/documents/sartre-existentialism-squashed.pdf. Asymmetric warfare is any guerrilla type operation by a weaker force against a stronger one. How Do Just War Principles Apply to Drone Warfare? The terms "terrorist" and "terrorism" Global Terrorism. Notwithstanding the aforementioned and for the purpose of this essay the Enlightenment is 1685 – 1815. In the modern context, asymmetric warfare is increasingly considered a component of fourth generation warfare. From a broader political perspective the existential threat the West represents—as a body-politic—is usually judged through the prism of political recognition, military-ties and economic benefits and the concomitant non-recognition that non-state actors may have valid claims regarding exploitative government- and economic-structures, and that repression and discrimination are present. How Do Just War Principles Apply to Drone Warfare? The fact is that an entirely new form of asymmetric warfare has been attempted by international terrorism. Few talk today about the âGlobal War on Terrorism,â and few should. Thus, ISAF is a force that requires an existential response from an exogenous actor. Terrorism, therefore, is a complex and multi-faceted phenomenon, iterations of which exhibit criss-crossing and overlapping characteristics. Terrorism therefore, has been given a renewed prominence and is a higher level of menace. Terrorists and freedom fighters may in certain contexts use similar tactics or have similar goals, thus blurring the lines between the two except for the context in which each fights. The fifth model, and the one I prefer, is the family-resemblance approach which foregoes tight definitions in favor of more empirical and contextual treatments of specific manifestations of terrorism. The US in Iraq and US and ISAF in Afghanistan are possibly the most significant kinetic interventions with regard to enforcing and reinforcing a Euro-centric/Eurocentrism model of good government and governance.  There is much debate amongst scholars when the Enlightenment began and ended, and feminists’ now argue that because women and the poor were excluded the term does not represent an accurate description of history. Boston: Longman, 2013, 26. For that reason, before we apply just war principles to terrorism and asymmetrical warfare, we will reflect on what it is that causes us to call a particular person or group of people “terrorists.”, Philosopher David Rodin and others have surveyed the various ways of defining terrorism which can be divided into five categories. There are difficulties with both views. The combatants of asymmetrical warfare have received a myriad of names, such as: insurgents, guerrillas, insurrectionists, terrorists, and rebels. ASYMMETRIC WARFARE: THE ONLY THING NEW IS THE TACTICS LTC DAN DALEY, USA/CLASS OF 2000 COURSE 5605 SEMINAR N FACULTY SEMINAR LEADER CAPT JAMES MADER, USN FACULTY ADVISOR COL TOM SMITH, USA. Contemporary global security environment and concrete forms of asymmetric security threats such as extremism, terrorism, organized crime, â¦ Have all new posts delivered straight to your inbox. See: ‘Positivism’ Dictionary.com http://www.dictionary.com/browse/positivism?s=t. When practiced outside the laws of war, it is often defined as terrorism, though rarely by its practitioners or their supporters. Additionally, they do not enjoy widespread support as a political group and thus must resort to secretive acts of terror. In upcoming installments of this series, we will address emerging weapons being developed for use against terrorists, special operations and direct action warfare, interrogation and intelligence gathering, drones and robotic warfare, and computers and cyberwarfare. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 2003, 359.  Eric Margolis. A broad yet accurate summation of why terrorism has gained such importance is the increasing number of individuals are ‘finding’ themselves through their personal experiences and resorting to violence in order to prove their commitment to a cause. We must avoid responding in unjust ways if we wish to be effective in combating terrorism, winning the hearts and minds of the civilian population, and upholding the moral order of war to which we are committed. London: Pengion Books, 1978, 94. The most lethal form of recent disruptions have been by ‘lone-wolf’ actors, and this is closely followed by actors working within small cells—usually referred to as ‘sleeper cells.’ The tactics of both have progressively concentrated on ‘soft target’ disruption, which essentially involves the killing of civilians in public places and from a tactical perspective these attacks have been successful in part, because the individuals’ have no followers; are not part of a group; and have no hierarchy of control. Terrorism, guerilla warfare and wars between unequals now called asymmetric warfare is not something new. Why I am a Proponent of the Just War Tradition, The “Founding Fathers” of the Just War Tradition, Seven All-Stars of the Just War Tradition, Eight Recent Champions of the Just War Tradition, 8 Criteria for Deciding When It’s Right to Go to War, 7 Moral Criteria to Guide Commanders during Battle. It is important, however, to look beyond todayâs headlines about Yemen and consider the broader range of threats the US now â¦ Within this principled approach, the person—in this case a terrorist—embraces the notions and ‘… importance of personal experience and responsibility and the demands that they make in the individual who is seen as a free agent in a deterministic and seemingly meaningless universe’ An explanation of this is that a human—although Sartre refers to and uses, the gendered term ‘man’—, first exists encounters himself and emerges in the world, to be defined afterwards … It is man who conceives himself, who propels himself towards existence. Notwithstanding the abovementioned actions and the tangible- and symbolic-outcomes it can accurately be argued that the actor is an existential threat to the people immediately involved; and to the population at large—in the case of the aforementioned the three liberal-democratic nation-states of France, Britain and Spain. 13. Is Terrorism a Legitimate Response to Asymmetric Warfare? 24 May, 2016. https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2016/03/terrorism-in-europe-at-historical-high/,  ‘Is terrorism in Europe at an historical high?’,  There are four ‘types’ of ‘lone-wolf’ attackers and for the purpose of this essay it is the second ‘type’ that is of most interest here.  The number of fatalities, however, does not adequately reflect the overarching perception of the terrorist threat, as the aim of a terrorist or group, is to instill fear in the populace. They do so therefore in ways that seem random to the population, and which therefore destabilize society and demoralize its elected officials and law-enforcement officers.  For an overarching account of this action. The group decried the US as an Imperialist power and labelled the West German government as fascist and a holdover from the Nazi era. Whilst all of the reasons that exogenous groups attack governments—particularly Western ones—is beyond the debate in this article, and bearing in mind there is unlikely to be any unique cause for terrorism, as there is no key event identifying the moment that an actor views himself or herself as a soldier fighting for comrades and cause, an historical underpinning that drives violent reactions by exogenous groups does have a primary focus. Buy Terrorism, Asymmetric Warfare, and Weapons of Mass Destruction (Praeger Security International) by Cordesman, Anthony H. (ISBN: 9780313361197) from Amazon's Book Store.  Alistair Horne.  Charles Tilly. In the Twenty-first century it is a germane observation that the number of attacks appears to be on the increase and without doubt this is due to the news cycle and the immediacy with which an attack is reported.  The context in which terrorist tactics are used is often a large-scale, unresolved political conflict. The tradition developed to help control conventional warfare, but it is no less applicable to the terrorism and asymmetrical warfare prevalent in contemporary conflicts. Having a clear idea of what terrorism is will help us know how best to respond justly to the threat of terrorism towards innocent noncombatants. From the battles, to sue for Peace on favourable terms is, in the modern context asymmetric. 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