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Tehran: Plan and Budget Organization of Iran. Seismic Risk Reduction in Developing Countries SNiP I-A.1 (1955). Almost the whole country, including several large mountain ranges, such as the Alborz, Zagros, Makran, and Köpet Dag Mountains, falls within an active seismic zone numbered 1–4 on the Iranian seismic hazard map (Moinfar et al., 2012). GB/T 33735-2017 (2017). Albania is particularly interesting, as stone was not only used in the past, it is still practiced today at various places in the Northern and Southern Mountain Ranges. Eurokodi 8 – For Construction and Masonry Constructions (in Albanian). Official Gazette of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia n.31 of 5 June 1981, Belgrade. Generally, bigger stone blocks are employed at quoins and jambs to increase the strength of masonry. 2 & 3, Reaffirmed 2018. (2003). P2-85 (1985). This current code is strongly influenced by Eurocode 8 but remains to be the main seismic code used in Bulgaria, as Eurocode 8 is only mandatory for structures of very high and national importance. However, it must be noted that all schools are designed and constructed by the “Organization of Renovation, Development, and Equipping of Schools” under the Ministry of Education, who is in a position to deviate from the codes, and may apply different (possibly stricter) regulations for the urban or rural settings. Since 2004, the European seismic code EN 1998-1:2004+A1 (2013), commonly known as Eurocode 8, is the leading norm to which most European countries have committed. Figure 2. Beijing: Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of the People’s Republic of China. IS 1893 (part 1)-2002 (2002). 5:13. doi: 10.3389/fbuil.2019.00013. Moreover, it is observed that some countries are not taking the implications of different seismic hazard levels into account. Riyadh: Saudi Building Code National Committee. In here, rubble stone buildings of 2 stories height are allowed in seismic zone 7 and 8, with a maximum cross-wall spacing of 6 m. (This contradicts a previous table which allows 2 stories in zone 7, and 1 story in zones 8 and 9 as well). The masonry section about empirical design contains word-for-word copied sections of the Indian Standards IS:4326-1993 (1993) and IS:1905-1987 (1989), which are specifically meant for regular sized stones (Ashlar), and currently more than 30 years old. ABC-2012 (2012). It describes a minimum required thickness of 350 mm for URM shear walls with natural stone units, but only for moderate seismicity zones with an acceleration value ag,urm≤ 0.20g, and with the addition of horizontal and vertical reinforcements (making it NRM). The first mandatory Afghan Building Code (ABC-2012, 2012), however, is basically a collection of literally copied segments of the US codes IBC-2009 (2009) for structural requirements, ASCE/SEI-7-10 (2010) for design loads, and refers to ACI 530/530.1-11 (2011) for masonry. Contrary to the Russian and most neighboring codes, the masonry chapter of the first post-Soviet Tajik seismic code MKS CT 22-07-2007 (2007) does not explicitly rule out rubble stone, as it only “recommends” that stones must be of regular shape. Guideline of Avoiding the Earthquake Danger for Primary and Middle Schools (in Chinese). Random rubble masonry: 1. SPECIFICATIONS AND INDIAN STANDARD FOR STONEWALL, STONE MASONRY AND STONEWORK, IS 1121 1974 METHOD OF TEST FOR DETERMINATION OF STRENGTH PROPERTIES OF NATURA BUILDING STONE PART 1 COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH, IS 1121 1974 METHOD OF TEST FOR DETERMINATION OF STRENGTH PROPERTIES OF NATURA BUILDING STONE PART 2 TRANSVERSE STRENGTH, IS 1121 1974 METHOD OF TEST FOR DETERMINATION OF STRENGTH PROPERTIES OF NATURA BUILDING STONE PART 3 TENSILE STRENGTH, IS 1122 1974 METHOD OF TEST FOR DETERMINATION OF TRUE SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF NATURA BUILDING STONE, IS 1123 1995 METHOD FOR IDENTIFICATION OF NATURAL BUILDING STONE, IS 1124 1974 METHOD OF TEST FOR DETERMINATION OF WATER ABSORPTION APPARENT SPECIFIC GRAVITY AND POROSITY OF NATURAL BUILDING STONES, IS 1125 1974 METHOD OF TEST FOR DETERMINATION OF WEATHERING OF NATURAL BUILDING STONE, IS 1126 1974 METHOD OF TEST FOR DETERMINATION OF DURABILITY OF NATURA BUILDING STONE, IS 1127 1970 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR DIMENSIONS AND WORKMANSHIP OF NATURAL BUILDING STONES FOR MASONRY WORK, IS 1128 1974 SPECIFICATION FOR LIMESTONE (SLAB AND TILES), IS 1129 1972 RECOMMENDATION OF DRESSING OF NATURAL BUILDING STONES, IS 1130 1969 SPECIFICATION FOR MARBLE (BLOCK, SLABS, AND TILES), IS 1805 1973 GLOSSARY OF TERMS RELATING TO STONES QUARRYING AND DRESSING, IS 3316 1974 SPECIFICATION FOR STRUCTURAL GRANITE, IS 3622 1977 SPECIFICATION FOR SANDSTONE (SLAB AND TIELS), IS 3620 1979 SPECIFICATION FOR LATERITE STONE BLOCK FOR MASONRY, TOP 40 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS FOR CIVIL ENGINEER | CIVIL INSPECTOR | QC INSPECTOR IN INTERVIEW, Specification for Prime Coat and Tack Coat, JOB HAZARD ANALYSIS OF PIPE LAYING AND LIFTING. It compares the main design requirements, such as overall length, width and height dimensions of the buildings; minimum and/or maximum thickness and dimensions of walls elements and openings; and specifications of main horizontal and vertical reinforcements. Kabul: Urban and Construction Projects Institute. MS collected all data, coordinated all fact-checking through interaction with the experts worldwide, and wrote the manuscript. Bulletin Officiel n.6206 de 21 Novembre 2013, Rabat. Temporary Construction Guidelines for Earthquake Regions (in Turkish). Main mountain ranges of North Africa, East and South Europe (original source: Natural Earth raster + vector map). PN 01.01-09 (2012). After the devastating 2005 Kashmir earthquake, the building code was upgraded with a focus on seismic design of buildings, whilst dividing the whole country into 5 seismic zones (BCP-SP-07, 2007). In Saudi Arabia stone was used a lot in the past, such as in the southern provinces of Saheer and Al Bahah, but these days it is basically no longer practiced. Sci. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). After the very damaging 1963 Skopje earthquake in Macedonia, a temporary code SFRY-39/64 (1964) was drafted. SNT 2.01.08-99 (2000). Although restricted to areas with a low seismic hazard, with these clauses the Italian national codes deviate from Eurocode. Tel Aviv: The Standards Institution of Israel. Still, in the rural and mountainous regions where rubble stone remains to be the primary construction material, both these scenarios of qualified design and required approval are highly unlikely to occur. The housing stock mainly consists of single-family masonry buildings, mostly in adobe construction (Pittore and Parolai, 2016). This can be further subdivided as uncoursed, coursed, random, dry, polygonal and bint. 8 Armenia also has a rich historic culture of stone masonry, which is still practiced today. Flint Rubble Masonry: This type of masonry is generally put to use where flint/cobble is available in … Front. With amendments D1 (2011) and D2 (2014). In the most unfavorable scenario (zone 3, soil profile IV) for masonry type III, a maximum building ratio of 1:3 (width versus length) is allowed, with a limitation of 2 stories height and 6 m spacing of cross-walls. The stones used are quarried in such a manner and of such sizes so that they can be lifted and placed by hand. Beijing: Standardization Administration of China, jointly with General Administration of Quality Supervision. Floors must be made of wooden members, the roof structure must be properly anchored to the walls and made as stiff as possible. 5:55. doi: 10.3389/fbuil.2019.00055, Schildkamp, M., and Araki, Y. But other than a few minor remarks about using stones in foundations and civic works, nothing for rubble stone masonry is described in any of the national codes of Argentina, Chile, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico, Dominican Republic, Haiti and Cuba. Already since these earliest codes, the use of mud mortar was, and still is, strictly forbidden. … Yerevan: Ministry of Urban Development of the Republic of Armenia. It has become a one-size-fits-all publication that does not offer solutions that addresses different seismic hazard levels in the country. In the codes of Peru, home of the extraordinary historic Inca stone structures, references to stone masonry were expected; also given the fact that Peru is one of very few countries in the world that has specific codes for “non-engineered techniques” like earth (E.080, 2017) and bamboo (E.100, 2012). Earthquake Resistant Construction. The Indian seismic code IS:1893 (part 1)-2016 (2016) also leaves room for interpretation as stone masonry “should preferably be avoided” in seismic zone IV, and construction of schools “should not be permitted.” The overall point is: Any possible misinterpretation can easily be avoided by adding a clear line in the codes, which specifically states whether rubble stone masonry is allowed or not; and to what type of buildings and structures it applies. And Urban Planning of the USSR for Construction devastating Earthquakes in history January 17, 2018 ( in ). Zone of 9 points of February 26, 1956, Athens de Terre EN,. Of shaping is time-consuming and costly, Ashlar is not the case of the Caucasus are shown Figure! The Köpet Dag Mountains for rubble stone masonry Units are needed according to the walls ( Nepal ) Dr.. Dhajji Dewari, Affordable seismically Resistant and Sustainable Housing, Construction and of... 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