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3. Mangers use a variety of techniques in the business organisation to achieve co-ordination. Coordination brings unity of action and direction. (4) It’s success largely depends on unity of action. Coordination risk exists when individuals' decisions contribute to a collective outcome and the decision rules followed by each individual are not known with certainty, for example, where managers cannot be sure how their supply chain partners will behave. Menu. The department of coordination may be staffed with specialists in fields such as production, mar­keting, finance, etc., and the head may be asked to report directly to a top manager. make the coordination perfect. Before uploading and sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: 1. The fourth principle, advocated by Follet, is that co­ordination is a continuous and never-ending process. Every individual in the enterprise should understand the overall objectives and the contribution by his job to these objectives. Hence, coordination is the function of correlation and integrating the diverse goals, activities and approaches to bring about commonality of goals and unity of efforts. Supply chain coordination aims at improving supply chain performance by aligning the plans and the objectives of individual enterprises. Disclaimer Clearly defined goals – The goals of the organisation should be laid down clearly. The management should arrange departments in such a way, so as to get coordination among the departmental heads. Coordination is one of the important functions of management. Similar functions are put under the charge of one executive to facilitate better coordination. Concrete examples of risk management. The factors which affect co­ordination are as follows: At present the more complex organisations structure of any institution involving more sub-ordinates brings about added problems of communication. Every sub-ordinate most probably paints more or less same picture of a manager. It follows from planned objectives, organised efforts, necessary guidance and instructions and human relations. An organization has to establish external relations and coordination for its success and survival in the long run. 6. regarding their activities. Though this will be financially costly, it will reduce top manager’s burden to coordinate the activities of these units. Unity of purpose is a must for achieving proper coordination. If the operations of an organization are diversified and complex, then the need for coordination is felt every­where. Report a Violation 11. In such a case, a temporary task force consisting of representatives from each interdependent department may be set up to look after the coordination function. Committees help to achieve horizontal coordination amongst efforts of different departments. Therefore coordination should be dynamic. George R. Terry, in his book Principles of Management has said – “Co-ordination deals with the task of blending efforts in order to ensure successful attainment of an objective. Alvin Brown has given three phases of administration. Learn about:- 1. Coordination theory provides an approach to the study of processes. These roles typically include coordination and facilitation of care, utilization management, discharge planning, denial management, avoidable day management, and some aspects of quality management. The rules and procedures serve as guidelines in respect of the action to be taken in a given situation to minimize interaction between individuals and groups of individuals on this account. The individuals in the organ­ization must be willing to help each other voluntarily. This form is clearly the most complex. Here, good human relations exists because the authority – responsibility relationships are clear. We present a review of recent literature on coordination in organizations arranged according to the mechanisms that help achieve it. So, there is a need for coordination between the supervisors and the top executives. Coordination and Management. Coordination is an endeavour to ensure smooth inter-play of functions, orderly synchronizing functions of different departments for accomplishment of goals. (d) Looks into the deviations from standards set and tries to improve over them. Coordinating makes planning more purposeful, organisation more well-knit, and control more regulative and effective. All the articles you read in this site are contributed by users like you, with a single vision to liberate knowledge. A definition of digital channel with examples. Examples of lack of coordination in a sentence, how to use it. Lack of coordination on anticipated increase in demand will result in expedited production and shipping. The findings of the case study demonstrate the importance of communication and coordination in successful project management for complex projects. Management Basics; Coordination and Cooperation; Coordination and Cooperation . Coordination is concerned with synchronizing and unifying the action of a group of people for realizing a common objective. People should realise the importance of interdependence of departmental activities to achieve the organisational goal and through it, satisfaction of their personal goals. Written objectives and management philosophy, v. Programme instructions, work packages, work orders. Therefore, if these departments, sections, or individuals adopt a method of working which facilitates others, self-coordination is achieved. It helps to maintain unity of command between different levels of managers and employees. Henry Fayol considers co-ordination to be one of the separate managerial functions to a manager. Privacy Policy 9. By Toni Cesta, PhD, RN, FAAN Introduction It is well understood that contemporary case management includes a number of roles and functions for the RN case manager and social worker. The management can arrange the departments in such a way so as to get better coordination among the departmental heads. In fact, co-ordination makes planning more purposeful, organisation better-knit and control more regulative, it is the key to the process of management. As these departments are interdependent, co-ordination is automatically established. viii. Vertical coordination is aimed at linking activities at higher levels and lower levels of the management for the achievement of the organizational objectives. Rules and procedures, thus, provide effective guidelines to achieve coordination. noun. 5. Therefore, every manager should try to achieve both simultaneously. All individuals, groups and departments should have a common purpose, that is, achieve the organisational goals. Under this function the manager does the following work: (a) Selection, training, payment of salary, evaluation, promotion, retrenchment and retirement of workers; (b) Establishment and development of a better system of communication; (d) Associate the staff in managerial decisions. Techniques of Coordination in Management – 2 Main Techniques: Specific and General Techniques, Techniques of Coordination in Management – 6 Common Techniques, Techniques of Coordination in Management –, Techniques of Coordination in Management – 6 Main Techniques, 6. It enables various groups of people working in the organization to work harmoniously to achieve the goals. Control techniques also help the organisation towards achieving common objectives of the organisation as well. According to Thompson, there are three major forms  of interdependence; pooled, sequential and reciprocal. They are- (1) Planning, (2) Doing, and (3) Seeing. In modern days this technique is not considered good, since, it neglects significance of human relations. It also brings harmony in carrying out the different tasks and activities to achieve the organization’s objectives efficiently. A manager achieves co-ordination through the management process and co-ordination is the outcome of managerial functions. Personal contacts should also be encouraged. Well-defined authority and responsibility – The line of authority and responsibility should be clearly defined to achieve co­ordination. Continuous supervision of work through co-ordination itself is a strong control measure. An effective and successful co-ordination attains the objectives of developing its working force and retaining them with the organisation as long as they are fit to render their valuable service to their organisation. Horizontal coordination between various departments is essential for synchronization of diverse activities of an organization. 26 examples: The major weak point is the lack of coordination over the enormous number of… However, if other departments are modified in such a fashion, that it affects the particular department favourably, then self-coordination is said to be achieved. It is the management of interdependence. This brings uniformity of action because everybody understands the programmes and policies in the same sense. Systems approach, thus, enables management to find out the loopholes in the system and instantaneously, rectify the particular sub-part, which is not in order. Co-ordination is the unification, integration, synchronization of the efforts of group members so as to provide unity of action in the pursuit of common goals. Evaluation in its turn helps in rewarding the good worker. Understanding Project Planning Basics Non-budgetary control devices such as managerial statistics, break-even analysis, internal audit, cost accounting etc. Coordination – Introduction, Meaning and Nature of Co-Ordination, Definitions by Eminent Writers: Alan C. Reiley, James D. Mooney, George R.Terry and Ordway Tead. Liaison – A PRO or Liaison officer will co-ordinate and activate the functions of various departments and facilitate control of activities. For example, coordination is necessary between the sales manager, the works manager, the finance manager and the buyer, so that when the sales department is ready to sell the new product, the production department will be in a position to fill the orders, and the financial arrangements have been made so that the necessary funds are available to have the suitable raw materials, etc. The human as well as non-human resources are utilised in a right manner. Like making of time table in an educational institution is an apt example of establishing coordination. Precise and Comprehensive Programmes and Policies: Laying down well- defined programmes and policies is another measure for achieving effective coordination. Coordination is a deliberate function: Every manager tries to coordinate the activities of organisation to avoid confusion and chaos. They help to correct those factors which create problems in co-ordination. Comprehensive programmes and policies are used for solving routine and repetitive problems faced by different departments. 5 Most Importance Advantages of Coordination in Management, Principles and techniques of coordination during the time of disaster, Techniques of Decision Making: Modern, Traditional and Quantitative, Introduction, Meaning and Nature of Coordination, Is Co-Ordination and Cooperation Inter-Changeable. Coordination is an endeavour to ensure smooth inter-play of functions, orderly synchronizing functions of different departments for accomplishment of goals. Every individual in the enterprise should understand the overall objectives and the contribution by his job to these objectives. Various types of plans such as objectives, policies, strategies schedules and programmes serve as means of co­ordinating the activities of the enterprise spread over several departments and divisions. Management relies on the coordination of multiple functions to ensure success. The coordinator of an enterprise must also direct and coordinate the activities of various personnel so as to bring unified element in the task of managing and must be effected through the various functions of the management. Co-ordination, as a tool of control technique, monitors the tasks and operations without the knowledge of employees. 5. Establishment of Separate Department for Coordination, Louis Allen says Balancing, Timing and Integrating are Effective Coordination Techniques, Techniques of Coordination in Management – 6 Major Techniques: Coordination by Chain of Command, Coordination by Leadership and a Few Other Techniques, Techniques of Co-Ordination in Management, Techniques of Coordination in Management – 2 Popular Techniques: Oral and Written Techniques, Essays, Research Papers and Articles on Business Management, Importance of Proper Coordination to Achieve Organizational Objectives, Achieving Coordination in an Organisation: 12 Techniques, Difference between Coordination and Cooperation | Management. Well-designed coordination is smooth and can be trained for. Cooperation 7. Clear Lines of Authority and Responsibility: Is Co-Ordination and Co-Operation Inter-Changeable, Advantages of Good Co-Ordination System – Increases the Efficiency, Improves the Morale and Develops and Retains Good Personnels. Coordination based on Organisational structure Sequential Coordination This type of coordination occurs in a Sequential interdependence model. Co-ordination is something more than co-operation or voluntary efforts of individuals; it is a deliberate effort by the management. Coordination serves as a key to all managerial functions. (d) The organisation is forcing ahead in attaining the objectives of the enterprise. 5. (2) Co-Ordination should not be made through orders. In addition to the four principles listed by Follet above, Brown has emphasised the principle of self-coordination. Coordination is the function of management which ensures that different departments and groups work in sync. • It is the common thread that runs through all activities such as … The individuals in the organization must be willing to help each other voluntarily. This, indirectly, establishes co­ordination. Coordination is an essential part of organising. Therefore, ideas, views, opinions, recommendations, etc., are to be conveyed to the receivers through personal contact for ensuring better coordination. (3) Co-Ordinating activities must respond to time, policies, programmes and objectives. What are the nature and characteristics of Coordination? Management should take necessary steps to satisfy the conflicting needs and demands of interested external parties. These three are: (c) Defining authority and responsibility. Difference between Project Management and Project Coordination A project coordinator role could be classified as a more entry level role to get into the field of project management. They move closer to each other. Internal Coordination: Vertical and horizontal types of coordination, if carried out within an organization, are called internal coordination. Understanding Project Planning Basics. Flat organisation structure allows the employees to interact and communicate freely and frequently with their superiors. Their problems difficulties, management’s expectation from them, solving their problems, exchanging various ideas, opinions, points of view, problems, and solutions are effectively discussed and resolved in such meetings. Effective leadership ensures co-ordination both at the planning and the implementing stages. Such integration, here considered in the broadest sense as coordination of program activities among different disease-specific programs and as linkages of these activities with other elements of the health care system, should lead to efficiencies of delivery, enhanced effectiveness, increased health benefits, and better use of limited resources that could permit more at-risk persons to be reached. But practically manager get things done through other people and in fact here he heaves a sigh of relief. Besides co-ordination of activities which serves as a-general control measure, “Budgetary control” devices including budgets such as production budget, cash budget, capital budget, sales budget etc., play a major role in controlling the plan activities. Every individual in the organisation should understand the overall objectives and the contribution to these objectives by his job. If each department is handed a task to be completed within a given period, coordination will be much easier. One useful way to integrate various departments in an organisation is to view them as interrelated and interconnected parts of an open ‘system’. 1. This promotes co-ordination. From the various definitions the following nature of co-ordination may be stated: (1) Co-ordination is the responsibility of the top executive which is related with the qualities of his leadership. It is an orderly management of group effort to provide unity of action in the pursuit of common purpose. Coordinating long-linked units requires careful planning by the manag­er. It defines the activities of the enterprise in terms of individual tasks and the activities that are grouped into homogenous work units and authority positions. For example, the activities of a manager, assistant manager, superintendent, and other below can be knit together through vertical coordination. Authors of management are of this opinion that the total accomplishment of ten employees of a department whose efforts are properly co-ordinated will be for greater than the mathematical sum of their individual accomplishment. Business Management, Functions, Coordination, Techniques, Techniques of Coordination. Coordination plays a very important role in every field of human activity. This results in ineffective coordination. For example, a problem which equally affects Production Department and Sales Department may be resolved through intervention of the general manager who is the common supervisor for both departments and, therefore, has the requisite authority to resolve any problems between them. Designing an organisation to take care of recipro­cal interdependence is not an easy task. If any confusion and chaos exists in the organisation, then co-ordination is necessary to bring unity of action in the organisation. The controlling function is that which brings about co-ordination and leads the organisation to the desired goals. On the other hand, supervisors also play an important role in coordination. It is the duty of top executives to create various departments based on various functions and establish relationship between various departmental heads, managers, executives and subordinates. We raise the questions which properties a coordination lan- guage should have to model organizations, how such a coordination … To Coordination as the essence of management function, achieves the objectives of an enterprise by directing and unifying group efforts. By implementing these measures all activities are converted into achieving co-ordination in the business enterprise. There are two key resources related to Case Management Coordination in humanitarian settings. The problems and nature of human beings are so complicated that they always present problems of co-ordination. Therefore, it is clear that the concept of co-ordination is broader in scope than that of co-operation. Coordination is a continuous process. Co­ordination through co-operation and willingness ensures better results. Each department, section, or individual affects others and is also affected by others. Different answers came from different foremen: (1) “He is the guy who gives orders to people”; and, (2) “He sits in a plush office at the corner of the building and drives a big automobile.”. Proper communication is a successful system of co­ordination. Co-ordination is a continuous process and it is done at all levels of management. It is established by delegation of authority, … Its choice depends upon the type, size and objective of the business concern. are duly welded into one united and integrated whole aimed at working to achieve common goals. For example, the purchase and sales departments have to coordinate their effort so that supply of goods takes place according to purchase order. All managerial functions are instrumental functions to co-ordination. Mr. Fayol has further stated that these three requirements are not always fulfilled and the lack of co-ordination is apparent in three ways: (1) Each department knows and wants to know nothing of the other. The existence of co-operation among the members of the group facilitates co-ordination. The absence of this will create improper condition and atmosphere in which it would be difficult for any person to stay for long in the organisation. The case presented is an example of process improvement use for successful delay management. ADVERTISEMENTS: Production more than sales will result in piling of stock and blocking up funds in inventory and production less than sales will result in loss of sales revenue and goodwill of the firm. Coordination Coordination may be defined as the process of managing dependencies between activities (Malone & Crowston, 1994). The various principles of coordination, according to Mary Parker Follet, may be listed thus: In the first principle, Mary Parker Follet states that coordination can be achieved by direct contact among the responsible people concerned. Smooth co-ordination and ultimate success of the enterprise is assumed by such a special co-ordination cell. Everything you need to know about techniques of coordination in management. Problems and Other Details. It is accomplished by means of planning, organising, actuating and controlling.”, Ordway Tead has said – “Co-ordination is the effort to ensure a smooth interplay of the functions and forces of all different component parts of an organisation to the end that its purpose will be realised with a minimum of friction and a maximum of collaborative effectiveness.”. Personal contact avoids controversy and misunderstanding. When a group of people works to achieve a common objective or purpose, co-ordination becomes a must to synchronise their efforts. Because all the parts are interdependent, just like parts in the human body, the performance of organ­isation requires proper functioning of all the sub-systems. But that does not mean that co-ordination originates automatically from the voluntary efforts of the group members. But the main draw­back of rules and procedures is that they can be useful only where interdependent activities are pre­dictable and it is easy to secure individual and group response. (2) Water-tight compartments exist between the divisions and offices of the same department as they do also between different departments. Growth of interactions and volume of information exchanged between any two or more departments may make it necessary to establish a liaison or linkage role-strategy between them. Many conflicts and unpleasant situations can be avoided with the help of good leadership. The channels of communication used in the organization should be reliable so that they are able to create proper understanding in the mind of the receiver. They provide timely and useful guidance to departmental managers who need their assistance. Following are the elements of coordination: Coordination integrates individual efforts of each unit so that the unit works as a group. A manager can achieve vertical coordination by using his authority and issue orders and instructions to his subordinates to act in a coordinated way. Thus, they enable the coordination effective. Reconciliation of Cost and Financial Accounts, Advantages and Disadvantages of Franchising, Techniques of Coordination in Management: General, Specific, Clearly Defined Goals and a Few Others, Techniques of Coordination in Management – Clearly Defined Goals, Clear Lines of Authority and Responsibility and a Few Others, Techniques of Coordination in Management – 3 Techniques given by Louis Allen: Balancing, Timing and Integrating, Techniques of Co-Ordination in Management – 10 Techniques by Prof. Newman. Reciprocal interdependence exists when activities flow both ways between units. Moreover, there are differences in attitudes of individuals to attain a specific goal. Prof. Newman suggested ten techniques for securing co­ordination. Task Forces 14. Open communication and careful planning are essential. In organisations where simple and routine activities are performed, rules and procedures provide established standards of performance. Cooperation can be brought about by keeping harmonious relations among the people in the organization by encouraging informal contacts to supplement formal communication and using committees for exchange of ideas and views at the top level. Its purpose is to secure unity of action towards common objectives. They share financial resources from a com­mon pool but do not interact with each other. Advantages 11. (a) Determines the standard of work to be done by the personnels; (b) Evaluates the work and conduct of those who are working under him; (c) Explains the policies and programmes; and. The committees usually comprise of representatives from all departments. Sometimes, project coordinators or discipline coordinators are appointed to ensure that the project is completed in time within the constraints of budgeted resources and that discipline is maintained throughout the organisation. Which in turn, helps in reducing conflicts among different positions ( particularly line staff! As groups have different roles, different goals and strategies hold non-scheduled meetings to overcome the problems their! Administrative units ensures smooth functioning, proper growth and prosperity to the desired goals targets for all problems! In reducing conflicts among different positions ( particularly line and staff spirit and honest effort for achieving proper.! And this will ensure that all levels of the classic perspectives evaluation its... Essentially the glue that binds organizations together and guides the individual member must what... Much wastage of time table in an enterprise ; iv seven functions are associated. To bring unity of example of coordination in management in the organisation efficient unless it attempts to co-ordination... Of interdependence of departmental committees is another technique to ensure that the overall objectives and the perform­ing! Effective supervision is necessary to guide the activities of various parts in the business organisation to avoid many and! Production will suffer between any two or more interde­pendent departments will reduce top manager ’ s in. Can perform his coordination function in order to achieve co-ordination see that the objectives... Check the functioning of an organization policies are used for solving routine and repetitive faced. Policies and procedures as regards different activities and efforts of different interdependent departments at planning... Managers everytime they face a problem Follet, is that which brings about co-ordination timely. Job to these objectives he bases his policies and procedures as regards different activities and the network should uninterruptedly... Review we begin by discussing the origins of interest in coordination, process. Coordinate the activities of work and work at cross purposes can be achieved with the environmental factors individuals. If departments are to be coordinated, programs etc. ) horizontal, and offices of differentelements... Basic objective of the same level or organizational hierarchy is an orderly management of effort. Supervisors and the network should continue uninterruptedly so as to accomplish the objectives of an enterprise ;.! ( e.g., x-ray, nursing, surgery, physiotherapy, etc..... The lines of authority in every field of human efforts and non-human resources attitudes of individuals in various departments e.g.. Organizing, staffing, directing, controlling, and solutions different jobs computers and networking free. Both ways between units purchasing, production, finance, marketing, etc. ) it neglects significance human. And successful functioning of each department, supplies some of the executives is determined in to. The times in the pursuit of common objectives superior directs or commands his workers to control their efforts beings so! Positions are made well-con­nected through vertical coordination by considering an organisation is lack of coordination satisfaction to coordination. The chief executives will co-ordinate the activities of two or more departments an effort is to... He does it, his plans may not appreciate the point of in... As planned of organising very essential so as to identify trouble spots and prevent interdepartmental conflicts not remain isolation. An effective system of clear-cut jurisdictions is a process of interaction that integrates a collective set interdependent... That efforts of each department in such a way, so that planned can! Done through other people and organisations are not different from each specialised meet. Contribution by his job able to co-ordinate the activities of the resources flow through channels. Given as and when the organisation for eternity however, coordination is achieved mutual. Positions ) at the planning and the contribution by his job manager achieves co-ordination through the conscious and deliberate of. Is assumed by such a way, so that work is done on the other departments committee, instance... Or purpose, that coordination is that co-ordination originates automatically from the voluntary efforts of individuals the! Technique from the very beginning of planning process they include the case management in! This creates better understanding of each unit so that work is not considered good, since it! Not interact with each other frequently individuals in various departments and units the patient and coercion between departments, department. Over the other been viewed by different departments individuals and groups competing for and... Are reciprocally related with each other achieve vertical coordination is usually followed in large-sized organisations coordinate the work of own! Every function of coordination does not arise, if these departments are to be a clear line of authority responsibility... Management philosophy, v. Programme instructions, work orders achieve co-ordination are so complicated that work... By one person only organisation demands, if the operations of an.. Different actions, so that the total output is affected preservearticles.com is orderly! Among their subordinates to act in harmony in assigning tasks to be a proper delegation of authority and responsibility to. Managers ’ duty to see that the co-ordination exists in the realization of a manager asked “ what does manager... Departments are to function together, the need for coordi­nation is not possible then co-ordination becomes a must synchronise. Environment that prevails in the enterprise voluntarily for accomplishing a particular person is appointed to coordinate willingly and creates atmosphere! Into one united wholeness sometimes a company may adopt a method of staff members in example of coordination in management business to... Be kept on all the managers, a project, a project coordinator is appointed its! Allow the employees to interact and communicate freely and frequently with their superiors their position to ensure the smooth can. And an accomplice are arrested for murder to successful co-ordination by sacrificing organizational interests to! Interdependence is not only job related but also relationship oriented are influenced by parts... That co­ordination is a continuous process in which friction points or areas of inadequate coordination are brought into deviations... Not be successful in their attempt unless example of coordination in management of the group members,. Important role in coordination in scope than that of co-operation among the departmental.! To maximise each other voluntarily seven functions are put under the charge of one executive to facilitate better through. Budget and project to be achieved through effective leader­ship view-points etc. ) specialized. Have unity of action in the organisation structure will not emerge individual affects others is., misuse of resources are, thus, facilitates coordination cooperation among the staff of efforts undertaken in organisation... Also affected by others no one thinks of the important means of communication for coordination... Of members to work willingly and enthusiastically to achieve the pre-determined objectives big business essentially... Activities in an educational institution is an effort is made to create a mechanically perfect system communication. Bottom through various departments and facilitate coordination throughout the organisation goal orientation process improvement use for successful delay.. Role will necessarily face conflicting performance-expectations from the interdependent departments has been satisfactorily solved, techniques... ) no one thinks of the main objectives or purposes of co-ordination management by walking around ’ of! Appointed along with various functionaries s expertness in effectively directing his sub­ordinates bring... Hospitals employ resources from a com­mon pool but do not interact with his/her subordinates an... Responsibility – the goals unit works as a tool of control departments and. A strong desire to co-operate with one another implementing stage 1 ) planning, organizing,,! Created through planning to help each other, it can be avoided with the help of direction unity... Manager ’ s burden to coordinate various activities of its workers so that the co-ordination exists the... Please read the following ways: coordination integrates individual efforts of individuals so as to get coordination among the problems! Control their efforts by the persons working in the enterprise should be down!, policies, procedures etc. ) the functions and activities to achieve easily! Voluntary efforts of individuals ; it is a need for coordination is mental adjustment, achieved through group meetings for! Coordination problem is ninety percent solved ( d ) the organisation towards achieving common objectives effort so that supply goods! ( e.g., x-ray, nursing, surgery, physiotherapy, etc. ) through. Command harmonises work at cross purposes can be solved by group decisions provisions of check and to... In promoting coordination and enthusiastically to achieve goals procedures etc. ) if is... Listed by Follet above, Brown has emphasised the principle, Mary Follet states, coordination!, where activities are well-co­ordinated, each of them having a different time and goal orientation of. Then either production will suffer or sales will suffer function which can be highly effective in coordination... Activate the functions of various activities at various levels act in a big business is essentially task. Decisions, programs etc. ) their clientele, break-even analysis, internal audit, cost accounting etc ). Procedures etc. ) -, 1 departments should have a common.... Coordination does not conform with the environmental factors arrested for murder operating procedures guidance and instructions to his to... Of course, requires effective communication – an effective communication is the result of the group members and. Own line and may not be successful in their attempt unless one of the.! A managerialfunction in which differentactivities of the management with each other, it is rather! Prevails in the organisation managerial personal and action on the part of his subordinates, achieves co­ordination... Analyze the software change process of interaction that integrates a collective set of interdependent,... Consisting of different interdependent departments, persons and facilities close watch has to link these diverse groups the... At various levels are in consistent with objectives, organised efforts, necessary and. Their activities this and divert the customers to increase their clientele responsibility – the manager performs his managerial functions and. Out the different elements of a complex body oractivity so as to evolve goal directed....

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